Norman Mailer was a controversial figure in American letters from the moment he burst into the scene with "The Naked and the Dead."
The rollercoaster ride of instant fame and the literary scene almost did him in as soon as he had arrived at the pinnacle of the New York literary olympus. One has to let that sink in... this is the same man who survived island hopping in the South Pacific during World War II and saw ferocious action as an infantryman. Biographically speaking, Mailer grew up middle class, went to Harvard and "put in his time" as a craftsman learning the arduous path of the writer's life. Fast-forward to 2003, and the cantankerous, loud and outspoken Mailer has become a quick-witted elder statesman of letters, a mellowed grandfatherly figure intent on looking back with an objective eye and speaking from the heart.
"The Spooky Art: Thoughts on Writing"
is not the typical book aimed at the promising writer (or even the writer wannabe who speaks of the craft but does little writing), it is rather an open and objective few at Mailer's work and the struggles to define the highly elusive elements of writing such as "style" and "narrative voice." The book reads with many previously published interviews and written pieces by Mailer with the author's own running commentary. Divided into sections, the section on "Craft" appears as the most instructive, with the chapter on "Style" finally opening the door into a concrete definition of the writing process and finding one's own voice. What the writer does is over-romanticized ad nauseum, so coming to writing that is so clear and void of the usual cliches is refreshing as it is instructive. One of the best passages from "Craft" draws from the introspective power to clarify the obscure: "Someone who has never tried fiction will hardly be quick to understand that in the study, a writer often does feel God-like. There one sits, ensconced in judgment on other people' lives. Yet contemplate the person on the chair: He or she could be hungover and full of the small shames of what was done yesterday or ten years ago. Those flashes of old fiascos wait like ghosts even appear and ask to be laid to rest. Consciously or unconsciously, writers must fashion a new peace with the past every day they attempt to write. They must rise above despising themselves. If they cannot, they will probably lose the sanction to render judgment of others....
then later in "Real Life versus Plot Life, Mailer appears like a prophet. In speaking about the limitations of seeing your characters as victims, he seems to be predicting why today's literature is filled with victimhood, a social phenomenon today in the United States that seems to dictate "if you haven't been victimized, you haven't arrived:" "I'd say try not to think of your characters as victims. That sort of classification narrows them. In reality, very few victims ever see themselves exclusively as victims, and when they do, their spirit turns stale. There is a certain sort of self-pitying victim one wishes to walk away from, and they can be even worse in a book. Unless one is Dickens."
I wonder what Mailer would say today about the abundance of these types of novels, and how it might be a reflection of the changing moods in America... or is it just a marketing ploy researched and supported by data in many of the publishing houses of today?
Mailer examines the transmission of real life events into literature taking as an example the tragic events of 9/11. He explains with detail the amount of care a writer must take in filtering what happened into what happened with a vague twist, the effort of not letting all of the proverbial cats out of the bag. "Certain events, if they are dramatic or fundamental to us, remain afterward like crystals in our psyche. Those experiences should be preserved rather than written down. They are too special, too intense, too concentrated to be used head-on. Whereas if you project your imagination through the crystal, you can end up with an imaginative extrapolation of the original events. Later, coming from another angle, you may obtain another scenario equally good and altogether different from the same crystal. It is there to serve as a continuing source so long as you don't use it up by a direct account of what you felt....
Interestingly, I believe Mailer (who lived hard just like his literary idol a generation before him) is the only writer who has really gotten into the real Hemingway psyche. What I mean by the real Hemingway psyche is the examination of Hemingway's life and work with an objective eye, not with political or academic hog-washing blurs. Like all of the writers from his generation, Mailer learned a great deal from Hemingway, but he also suffered from a love-hate relationship with the Nobel laureate and did not lean one way or too much the other when being critical of the master. "I think Hemingway got into trouble because he had to feel equal to his heroes. It became an enormous demand. He could not allow a character in his books to be braver then he was in his private life. It's a beautiful demand, and there's honor in forcing oneself to adhere to such a code, but it does cut down on the work you can get out. While it's legitimate to write about a man who's braver than yourself, it is better to recognize him quickly as such. I believe I could put a heavyweight champion of the world into a novel and make him convincing, even enter his mind without having to be the best old fighter-writer around. I would look to use one of another of the few crystals I possess that are related to extraordinary effort.... Hemingway's death was a cautionary to me. His suicide as wounding as if one's own parent had taken his life.... Hemingway was a great cautioning influence on all of us. One learned not to live on one's airs, and to do one's best to avoid many nights when--thanks to Scott Fitzgerald's work--one know it was three o'clock in the morning.... Hemingway committed suicide working on airs. He took the literary world much too seriously. His death is there now as a lesson to the rest of us: Don't get involved at too deep a level or it will kill you and--pure Hemingway--it will kill you for the silliest reasons: for vanity, or because feuds are beginning to etch your liver with the acids of frustration."
Writing a little later, Mailer seems to evoke many of his experiences in combat with a thin-veiled allegoric sense of image: "Well, few of us dare death. Most of us voyage out a part of the way into our jungle and come back filled with pride at what we dared and shame at what we avoided, and because we are men of the middle and shame is an emotion no man of the middle can bear for too long, we act like novelists, which is to say that we are full of spleen, small gossip, hatred for the success of our enemies, envy at the fortunes of our friends, ideologues of a style of fiction which is uniquely the best (and is invariably our own style), and so there is a tendency for us to approach the books of our contemporaries like a defense attorney walking up to a key witness for the prosecution. At worst, the average good novelist reads the work of his fellow racketeers with one underlying tension--find the flaw, find where the other guy cheated."
A few years ago, I read and reviewed "The Deer Park"
on this blog. The book was a painful experience, difficult to believe much less read and interpret. Back then (as today) my fear was always that I had missed something important about the book. A small amount of research yielded a sea of bad reviews which, at first glance, seem to have confirmed my view. Reading "The Spooky Art,"
and most particularly the chapter on the re-write of the draft of "The Deer Park,"
I came away with a sense of having been unfair to Mailer. But how is one to know, as a reader, the backstage difficulties of the writing process? We cannot do anything other than try to be impartial. The writer/reader relationship remains the mystery it will always be.
Mailer is insightful in his criticism of "The Last Tango in Paris,"
and offers a view of how the written is translated into the visual, and the complexities of mixing the written, the improvised and the actor/writer/improviser. I have never watch this film, but I know enough about the controversy it caused. Mailer is the perfect judge of seeing without eyes the factor of improvisation and how it doomed the film while augmenting Marlon Brando's genius. He argues that the box office success of the film in America was a consequence of its sordid, vulgar and perverse elements. He judges this without being a prude, but rather putting it on the public/consumer. Why go watch a film in which Marlon Brando the actor plays the part of a character through which he is improvising the line if the only purpose of going to see the film is to try and discern which part of the perversity is Brando playing the character being perverse? Does it reflect on the thousands upon thousands of suburban women who rushed to the theater to watch Brando engage in anal sex with a much younger actress (or was it Brando playing the part of a character who possesses those sexual preferences, or was it just simply "Brando being Brando?"). See the difficulty of improvisation, the written and the art?
Mailer comments on the limitations of art in general. He writes extensively about graffiti and avant garde art and the ability of visual artists to go beyond what writers achieve on the page. He concludes, "But we are at the possible end of civilization, and tribal impulses start up across the world. The descending line of the isolated artist goes down from Michelangelo all the way to Chris Burden, who is finally more comfortable to us than the writers of graffiti. For Burden is the last insult from the hippie children of the middle class to the bourgeois art-patron who is their spiritual parent, but graffiti speaks of a new civilization where barbarism is stirring at the roots."
I think Norman Mailer had gone full-circle by the time he died in 2007. Shortly after his death, I found "On God: An Uncommon Conversation"
and found it to be a sensible book, not a dogmatic or archaic discourse on the metaphysical. Just like in "The Spooky Art,"
Mailer doesn't theorize... he doesn't need to. I am planning now on tackling his longer works (The Executioner's Song
and Harlot's Ghost
). Before I do this, I have to write on my perverse habit of taking "literary detours." With this I mean the habit of drawing up a reading list for the year and then injecting books in-between those listed. I know some people who detest reading lists because they come to see it as dictating a task, reading as a duty to finish or complete a check out list. I find this comparable to what Mailer writes about in "The Spooky Art"
because one must never find the process too dictating. I draw my own list and I am the impartial manager who injects a player into the line-up and keeps his opponent guessing. It's all art, and I suspect Mailer would approve.
Labels: Ernest Hemingway, Harlot's Ghost, Marlon Brando, Norman Mailer, plot, style, suicide, The Deer Park, The Executioner's Song, The Last Tango in Paris, The Naked and the Dead, The Spooky Art, writers, writing